• 分类名称:外语课程
  • 更新时间:2022-03-09
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一)在后面加s。如:fathers, books, Americans, Germans, apples, bananas

二)x, sh, ch, s, tch后加es。如:boxes, glasses, dresses, watches, wishes, faxes

三)以辅音字母加y结尾的变y为i再加es 如:baby-babies, family-families, duty-duties, comedy-comedies,documentary-documentaries, story-stories;

以元音字母加y结尾的直接加s。如:day-days, boy-boys, toy-toys, key-keys, ways

四)以o结尾加s(外来词)。如:radios, photos, 但如是辅音加o的加es:如: tomatoes西红柿, potatoes马铃薯

五)以f或fe结尾的变f为v再加es(s)。如:knife-knives, wife-wives, half-halves, shelf-shelves, leaf-leaves, yourself-yourselves

六)单复数相同(不变的)有:fish, sheep, deer鹿子, Chinese, Japanese

七)一般只有复数,没有单数的有:people,pants, shorts, shoes, glasses, gloves, clothes, socks

八)单词形式不变,既可以是单数也可以是复数的有:police警察局,警察, class班,同学, family家,家庭成员

九)合成的复数一般只加主要名词,多数为后一个单词。如:action movie-action movies, pen pal-pen pals; 但如果是由man或woman所组成的合成词的复数则同时为复数。如:man doctor-men doctors, woman teacher-women teachers

十)有的单复数意思不同。如:fish鱼 fishes鱼的种类, paper纸 papers报纸,卷子,论文, work工作 works作品,工厂, glass玻璃 glasses玻璃杯,眼镜, orange桔子水 oranges橙子, light光线 lights灯, people人 peoples民族, time时间 times时代, 次数, chicken 鸡肉 chickens 小鸡

十一) 单个字母的复数可以有两种形式直接加s或’s。如:Is (I’s), Ks (K’s)。但如是缩略词则只加s。如:IDs, VCDs, SARs

十二) 特殊形式的有:child-children, man-men, woman-women,foot-feet,mouse-mice, policeman-policemen,Englishman-Englishmen



一)单数在后面加’s。如:brother’s, Mike’s, teacher’s

二)复数以s结尾的直接在s后加’,如果不是以s结尾的与单数一样处理。如:Teachers’ Day教师节, classmates’; Children’s Day六一节, Women’s Day三八节

三)由and并列的名词所有时,如果是共同所有同一人或物时,只加最后一个’s,但分别拥有时却分别按单数形式处理。如:Mike and Ben’s room迈克和本的房间(共住一间),Mike’s and Ben’s rooms迈克和本的房间(各自的房间)


项目 人称代词 物主代词 指示代词 反身代词

人称 主格 宾格 形容词 名词性

第一人称 单数 I me my mine myself

复数 we us our ours ourselves

第二人称 单数 you you your yours yourself

复数 you you your yours yourselves

第三人称 单数 she her her hers herself

he him his his himself

it it its its this that itself

复数 they them their theirs these those themselves


A) 第三人称单数


一)一般在词后加s。如:comes, spells, waits, talks, sees, dances, trains

二)在x, sh, ch, s, tch后加es。如:watches, washes, wishes, finishes

三)1)以辅音字母加y结尾的变y为i再加es。如:study-studies, hurry-hurries, try-tries

2)以元音字母加y结尾的直接加s。如:plays, says, stays, enjoys, buys

四)以o结尾加es。如:does, goes

五)特殊的有:are-is, have-has

B) 现在分词


一)一般在后加ing。如:spell-spelling, sing-singing, see-seeing, train-training, play-playing, hurry-hurrying, watch-watching, go-going, do-doing

二)以不发音e的结尾的去掉e再加ing。如:dance-dancing, wake-waking, take-taking, practice-practicing, write-writing, have-having

三)以重读闭音节结尾且一个元音字母+一个辅音字母(注意除开字母组合如show –showing, draw-drawing)要双写最后的辅音字母再加ing。如:put-putting, run-running, get-getting, let-letting, begin-beginning

四)以ie结尾的变ie为y再加ing。如:tie-tying系 die-dying死 lie-lying 位于



一) 一般在词后加er或est(如果是以e结尾则直接加r或st)。如:greater-greatest, shorter –shortest, taller –tallest, longer –longest, nicer- nicest, larger -largest

二)以重读闭音节结尾且1个元音字母+1个辅音字母(字母组合除外,如few-fewer fewest)结尾的双写结尾的辅音再加er /est。如:big-bigger biggest, red-redder reddest, hot-hotter hottest

三) 以辅音字母+y结尾的变y为i加er/est。如:happy-happier happiest, sorry-sorrier sorriest, friendly-friendlier friendliest(more friendly most friendly), busy-busier busiest, easy-easier easiest


good/well - better best many/much - more most bad/ill – worse worst

little- less least old- older/elder oldest/eldest far- farther/further farthest/furthest

5、数词 (基变序,有规则;一、二、三,自己背;五、八、九、十二;其它后接th;y结尾,变为i, eth跟上去。) first, second, third; fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth; seventh, tenth, thirteenth, hundredth; twenty-twentieth, forty-fortieth, ninety-ninetieth




a) This is a book. (be动词)

b) He looks very young. (连系动词)

c) I want a sweat like this. (实义动词)

d) I can bring some things to school. (情态动词)

e) There’s a computer on my desk. (There be结构)

否定陈述句 a) These aren’t their books. b) They don’t look nice.

c) Kate doesn’t go to No. 4 Middle School. d) Kate can’t find her doll.

e) There isn’t a cat here. (=There’s no cat here.)

2. 祈使句

肯定祈使句 a) Please go and ask the man. b) Let’s learn English!

c) Come in, please.

否定祈使句a) Don’t be late. b) Don’t hurry.

3. 疑问句

1) 一般疑问句 a) Is Jim a student? b) Can I help you? c) Does she like salad?

d) Do they watch TV? e) Is she reading?

肯定回答: a) Yes, he is. b) Yes, you can. c) Yes, she does. d) Yes, they do. e) Yes, she is.

否定回答: a) No, he isn’t. b) No, you can’t. c) No, she doesn’t. d) No, they don’t. e) No, she isn’t.

2) 选择疑问句 Is the table big or small? 回答 It’s big./ It’s small.

3) 特殊疑问句

① 问年龄 How old is Lucy? She is twelve.

② 问种类 What kind of movies do you like? I like action movies and comedies.

③ 问身体状况 How is your uncle? He is well/fine.

④ 问方式 How do/can you spell it? L-double O-K.

How do we contact you? My e-mail address is cindyjones@163.com.

⑤ 问原因 Why do you want to join the club?

⑥ 问时间 What’s the time? (=What time is it?) It’s a quarter to ten a.m..

What time do you usually get up, Rick? At five o’clock.

When do you want to go? Let’s go at 7:00.

⑦ 问地方 Where’s my backpack? It’s under the table.

⑧ 问颜色 What color are they? They are light blue.

What’s your favourite color? It’s black.

⑨ 问人物 Who’s that? It’s my sister.

Who is the boy in blue? My brother.

Who isn’t at school? Peter and Emma.

Who are Lisa and Tim talking to?

⑩ 问东西 What’s this/that (in English)? It’s a pencil case.

What else can you see in the picture? I can see some broccoli, strawberries and hamburgers.

11问姓名 What’s your aunt’s name? Her name is Helen./She’s Helen.

What’s your first name? My first name’s Ben.

What’s your family name? My family name’s Smith.

12 问哪一个 Which do you like? I like one in the box.

13 问字母 What letter is it? It’s big D/small f.

14 问价格 How much are these pants? They’re 15 dollars.

15 问电话号码 What’s your phone number? It’s 576-8349.

16 问谓语(动作) What’s he doing? He’s watching TV.

17 问职业(身份) What do you do? I’m a teacher.

What’s your father? He’s a doctor.


1、一般现在时 表示普遍、经常性的或长期性的动作时使用一般现在时,它有:

Be 动词:She’s a worker. Is she a worker? She isn’t a worker.

情态动词:I can play the piano. Can you play the piano? I can’t play the piano.

行为动词:They want to eat some tomatoes. Do they want to eat any tomatoes? They don’t want to eat any tomatoes.

Gina has a nice watch. Does Gina have a nice watch? Gina doesn’t have a watch.

2、现在进行时 表示动词在此时正在发生或进行就使用进行时态,结构为sb be v-ing sth + 其它.

I’m playing baseball. Are you playing baseball? I’m not playing baseball.

Nancy is writing a letter. Is Nancy writing a letter? Nancy isn’t writing a letter.

They’re listening to the pop music. Are they listening the pop music? They aren’t listening to the pop music.

3.   形容词的用法:


 The little girl is very pretty. 这个小女孩很好看。

--I want that one. 我想要那个。

--Which one? 哪一个?

--The new blue one. 那个蓝色新的。

Can I have a look at the big nice one? 我能看一看那个大的漂亮的吗?



主格:I, we, you, he, she, it, they在句子中作主语

宾格:me, us, you, him, her, it, them在句子中作


 He and I are in the same class. 我和他在同一个班级。

Can you see them in the street? 你能看见他们在街上吗?



(1)可数名词分为单数和复数两种形式。可数名词前可以用不定冠词、数词或some many等修饰。如:a man  a desk   an apple  an orange  some books  some children  tow pens

(2)不可数名词没有复数形式,前面不能用不定冠词、数词或many等词语修饰,但可以用some  a little  much等词语来修饰。有时可以与一些量词短语搭配,这些量词短语中的名词一般是可数的,有单数形式,也可以有复数形式。如:some water   a little milk  much food   a piece of bread  tow bottles of ink    some glasses of water



Stand up, please. 请起立。           

Don’t worry. 别担心。



She can speak Japanese. 她会讲日语。

I can’t remember his name. 我不记得他的名字了。

Can you spell your name? 你会拼写你的名字吗?



结构:由be动词(am, is, are) + 动词ing构成,其中be动词要与主语保持性数一致。

Mary is flying a kite in the park. 玛丽正在公园里放风筝。

--What are you doing now? 你现在在干什么?

--I’m reading English. 我正在读英语。

Are they drawing the pictures now? 他们正在画画吗?




play—playing, do—doing, talk—talking, sing--singing


make—making, write—writing, have—having, take—taking


run—running, stop—stopping, put—putting, swim—swimming


She is cleaning her room now. 她正在打扫房间。

Look! The girl is dancing over there. 看!那个女孩在那里跳舞。

Can you go and play games with me? 你能和我们一起做游戏吗?

Can’t you see I am doing my homework? 你没看见我正在做作业吗?

8、have/ has的用法:

1)谓语动词have表示“有”,有两种形式:have和has,前者用于第一人称(I, we),第二人称(you)和第三人称复数(they),后者用于第三人称单数(he, she, it)或单数名词。

I have an apple and he has two bananas. 我有一个苹果,他有两个香蕉。

You have a new English teacher. 你们有了一个新的英语老师。

It has two big eyes. 它有一双大眼睛。

Julie and Jack have a nice car. 朱莉和杰克有一辆好看的车。

2)have/has句型与there be句型的比较:两者都表示“有”,但用法不同。前者表示所属关系,即表示“某人或某物有什么”,而后者表示存在,表示“某地有什么”。

They have some new books. 他们有一些新书。

There are some new books on their desks. 他们桌子上有一些新书。

She has a lot of pretty skirts. 她有很多漂亮的裙子。

There are a lot of pretty skirts in the shop. 商店里有很多漂亮的裙子。

3)have/ has的否定句,一般要加助动词do/ does,再加not构成,即do not have (don’t have)/ does not have (doesn’t have)

. She does not have a sister. 她没有姐姐。

We don’t have any classes on Saturday. 我们星期六没有课。

Ann and I don’t have a big room. 我和安没有一个大房间。

4)一般疑问句由“助动词Do/ Does + 主语 + have + 宾语”构成,回答用Yes, … do/ does.或者No, … don’t/ doesn’t.

--Do you have a big house? 他们的房子大吗?

--No, they don’t. 不,他们的房子不大。

--Does he have an eraser? 他有橡皮吗?

--Yes, he does. 他有的。

5) 特殊疑问句由特殊疑问词 + 助动词do/ does + have (+状语)构成。

What do they have? 他们有什么?

What does he have? 他有什么?

How many telephones do they have? 他们有几部电话?



He gets up at half past seven every day. 他每天七点半起床。

She goes to bed at eleven o’clock. 她十一点睡觉。


in the morning在早上,in the afternoon 在下午,in the evening 在晚上

at noon在中午,at night在夜里


What do you usually do on Monday morning? 星期一上午你通常做什么?

Do you sometimes go out to eat on Friday evening? 有时你星期五晚上出去吃饭吗?

He watches DVDs on Saturday night. 星期六晚上他看DVD。

Parents take children to parks on June 1. 六月一日,家长们带着孩子去公园。

4)在this, last, next, every等词前面既不加介词,也不用冠词。

What are you doing this afternoon? 今天下午你做什么?

He visits his grandma every Friday. 他每个星期五都去看望祖母。

She is going to Shanghai next Monday. 她下个星期一去上海。





They get up very early every morning. 他们每天早晨起来很早。

 I visit my grandparents four times a month. 我一个月去看望祖父母四次。

2)否定句用don’t + 动词原形来表示

We do not go shopping on Sundays. 我们周日不去购物。

 I don’t think you like this colour. 我想你不喜欢这个颜色。

3)一般疑问句则是把助动词do提前至句首,后面动词用原形。回答时,肯定用 “Yes, 主语+do”;否定句用 “No, 主语+don’t”。

–Do they go to school at seven o’clock? 他们七点去上学吗?

--Yes, they do.

--Do you like this skirt? 你喜欢这条裙子吗?

--No, I don’t. 不,我不喜欢。

一般现在时用来表示经常的或习惯性的动作,常与以下的时间状语连用:often 经常,always 总是,sometimes 有时,usually 通常,every day/ week 每天/ 周等。

 He usually goes to school by bike. 通常他骑车上学。

I visit my grandparents every week. 我每个星期都去看祖父母。

She is always late for class. 她总是上课迟到。

My parents and I sometimes go out to eat. 我和父母有时出去吃饭。

It often rains here. 这儿常常下雨。



He likes reading at night. 他喜欢夜里读书。

 She usually goes to school by bike. 她平时骑车上学。

The little cat drinks milk every day. 小猫每天都喝牛奶。


Kelly doesn’t get up early on Saturdays and Sundays. 凯丽星期六星期天起床不早。

He doesn’t feel well today. 他今天感觉不舒服。


Does he have lunch at school? 他在学校吃午饭吗?

Does it take long by train? 乘火车要很长时间吗?